Tuesday, May 26, 2020

Essay Topics About Animal Rights

Essay Topics About Animal RightsThere are a few argumentative essay topics about animal rights. They include arguments against animal testing, whether animals can suffer in some situations, and whether we should eat meat. By the time you have finished reading these essays, you will have gained a clear understanding of the issue. However, you should understand that there is no perfect set of arguments or articles that can explain everything about an issue.In order to get a better understanding of the debate over animal rights, it is necessary to read as many essays and articles on the topic as possible. This may sound easy, but it actually is very difficult because they all talk about different aspects of the same issue. You have to read all of them, all of the arguments, and compare them to each other to get a real feel for the subject. There are a few key points that you need to consider when evaluating essays and articles. Some of them are as follows:One of the most important point s to make when choosing essay topics about animal rights is how the author is going to compare the arguments they are making. The argument must be made logically, clearly, and persuasively. Essays can use a variety of methods to draw their argument out. Some of them might be using statistics or some graphic images to make their points. Others might be making arguments from the scientific perspective. Each method works well, but when you are comparing these arguments, you need to make sure that they are applicable to your subject.When reading essays and articles about animal rights, make sure that they are not an extension of your opinion. I know that this sounds strange, but there are a lot of people who are not open to ideas that challenge their beliefs. They try to avoid it, and if they are asked about it, they will tell you that you are being insensitive or intolerant. Never submit essays or articles that you feel are 'personal attacks'. Even if you disagree with someone, do not fall into the trap of arguing about why you think something is wrong.Another point to keep in mind when looking at essay topics about animal rights is to always consider the source. Animal rights activists often use the same arguments that we do, but you can find someone who is working against the same causes. It is important to find those who are attacking you and those who are trying to defend you, rather than you attack someone else.Always look at the links provided in essay topics about animal rights. Often, you will find an essay that you can completely disagree with, but that does not mean you should dismiss the whole essay. Look at the author's background and see if they are a vegetarian, vegan, or animal rights advocate. If they are a vegetarian, vegan, or animal rights advocate, you can generally assume that they are a good writer, but it is still worth taking a look at their work.Argumentative essay topics about animal rights can be tough to decide on, but it is possible t o find great essays online. These articles can help you make up your own mind.

Monday, May 18, 2020

Cyber Security A New Form Of Crime - 1594 Words

Cyber Security is considered to be one of the hot topics in modern era. It is a national security challenge that the United States and other countries face today. Cyber Security is an important factor to be considered if one is to be able to protect oneself from malicious people and software from the internet. While the Internet has been providing immense opportunities to individuals, organizations, and nations in diverse areas, at the same time it has also given birth to a new form of crime – cybercrime. This case study is about an Indian company named Pyramid Cyber Security (P) Ltd, which specializes in digital crime, fraud and forensic solutions and services in India. This company provides solutions for digital forensics and security projects for agencies in law enforcement, the public sector and corporate organizations. However, with more and more organizations moving towards cloud computing for their applications, cyber security throws up a different challenge for Pyramid . This challenge put Pyramid into the dilemma of whether they should focus on their existing business or explore new opportunities in cloud forensics. Additionally, they also in doubts whether to offer pre-incident or post-incident digital network security architecture. Alok Gupta, the founder and managing director of Pyramid Cyber Security (P) Ltd, amazes every time he sees in newspaper that organizations lost money due to cyber-attacks. He believes that organizations are not serious aboutShow MoreRelatedCyber Security Is A Growing Concern For Governments Around The World1296 Words   |  6 PagesGlobal Cooperation for Cyber Security Cyber Security is a growing concern for governments around the world. Cyber-attacks pose a direct threat to the security of the nations’ critical infrastructures and Information Technologies (IT) as a low-cost asymmetric warfare element. Most of these nations are aware of the vulnerability of the information technologies and the significance of protecting critical infrastructures. To counteract the threat of potentially disastrous cyber-attacks, nations’ policyRead MoreCyber Threat, Its Scope And Its Impact On National Security991 Words   |  4 Pageslives. It has become an ideal source for cyber criminals to remain active while preying on victims. Higher the number of cyberspace users’, higher is the opportunities for exploitation. So it is the need of the hour to protect our computers, networks, digital applications and our data from unintended or unauthorized source, change or destruction. This paper proposes a policy directed examination on cyber threat, its scope and its impact on national security. It includes a profile of cooperation amongRead MoreCyber Security Operations Centre ( Csoc ) Investigates And Analysis Cyber Attacks On Uk Networks1212 Words   |  5 PagesCyber Security Operations Centre (CSOC) investigates and analysis cyber-attacks on UK Networks and provide solutions and means to mitigate future attack. Its job is in cyber forensics and incident response while the Government Computer Emergency Response Team (GovCERT) deals with the public sector organisations on issues relating to computer security incidents, warnings, alerts, assistance and advice to prevent, reduce expose and mitigate attacks. The National Crime Agency formed in Oct 2013 toRead MoreShould Government Implement Laws For Cyber Crime?977 Words   |  4 PagesGovernment implement laws to prevent cyber crime† Today is the era of technology and globalisation, as it connects the whole world together but also opens new ways to crime. Cyber crime is the result of negative use of technology. Cyber crime refers to a crime which is committed through internet or computer. Cyber crime is of differenr types like stealing of money or information, piracy, electronic vendalism that is destroying or changing the electronic information. Cyber terrorism which threatens not onlyRead MoreCyber Crime As A Key Risk For Regulated Firm1504 Words   |  7 Pages Cyber-crime as a key risk for regulated firm Delegate ID number : 3733017 November 2014 The term cyber-crime describes criminal activity involving computer and internet in committing a crime. Generally it can be divided to two manners: It can target the machine itself, where the purpose of crime would be to gain access to important data stored on the machine, which could be used to obtain gain. It can also use the machine as a tool to commit other type of crime in more traditional understandingRead MoreOntology Of Information Security In Enterprises. Stephen1483 Words   |  6 PagesOntology of Information Security in Enterprises Stephen Schiavone1, Lalit Garg2 and Kelly Summers3 1University of Liverpool, Fountain Hills, Arizona, USA 2University of Liverpool, University of Malta, Malta 3Medicis Pharmaceutical Corp, Scottsdale, Arizona, USA steve.schiavone@my.ohecampus.com lalit.garg@my.ohecampus.com krsummers@sbcglobal.net Abstract: Today’s global free-market enterprise is reliant on the interconnectedness of social, economic and political ecosystems. Enterprises no longer maintainRead MorePolicing Cybercrime : Police And Armed Forces1174 Words   |  5 Pagespolicing cyber strategy is discussed and will show that the unique organisational structure of the UK police force means that policing cyber strategy varies from county to county in the UK; although each regional force operated with the same objective. Within the UK strategy is the criminalisation of certain cyber activity . with Cyber Security Strategies containing elements of cybercrime control, therefore a Criminal Justice rationale which connects it to the broader spectrum of crime preventionRead MoreCyber Laws in India and their Implications1817 Words   |  7 PagesCyber Laws in India and their Implications Contents Cyber space – Nature of threat 2 Growth of Internet user Population 3 The Legal Framework 4 The US and the UK Approaches for Data Protection and Privacy 4 The US 4 The UK 5 India’s Legal Framework Meets Most Requirements 5 Indian IT Act 2000 5 Indian Copyright Act 5 Indian Penal Code 5 Indian Contract Act, 1872 5 IT Act of India 2000 6 Proposed Amendments to the IT Act 8 Other Government Measures 9 Cyber space – Nature of threat Read MoreThe Involvement Of The Cyber Attack1564 Words   |  7 Pagesrelying on the internet for business transactions. In the early weeks of spring, Estonia was hit by a series of politically motivated cyber-attacks. Numerous parties and organisation suffered different forms of denial of service. The main parties included the Estonian government agencies, schools, banks and Internet Service Providers. The motivation for the cyber attack was due to the fact that the Estonian government made the decision to move a Soviet memorial of World War II from its previousRead MoreCyber Law1506 Words   |  7 PagesCYBER LAW INTRODUCTION: Cyberlaw is a new phenomenon having emerged much after the onset of Internet. Internet grew in a completely unplanned and unregulated manner. Even the inventors of Internet could not have really anticipated the scope and far reaching consequences of cyberspace. The growth rate of cyberspace has been enormous. Internet is growing rapidly and with the population of Internet doubling roughly every 100 days, Cyberspace is becoming the new preferred environment of the

Saturday, May 16, 2020

The Importance Of Public Health For New Zealand s Health...

With the remarkable improvement of people’s living standard, abundant nutritious food has caused non-communicable diseases become incredibly common nowadays, which globally causes 63% of death and it is going to continuously increase in the future. (citedO) It is necessary for people to start to attach great importance to eating habit in their daily lives. This report is about the role of public health dietitians including the organisations they work in, what they do, who they usually work with, what health problems they need to deal with, and more importantly, how do they contribute to the health system and how they will play a more important role in New Zealand’s health system in the future. Public health dietitians’ work options are broad, they can work in various places such as in food manufacturing sector, in relevant government departments, education sector and management. The TYPE of organisations that public health dietitians in New Zealand can work in probably is public ownership, public funding, non-for-profit and community based organisations. In New Zealand, public dietitians can work in, for example, Cancer Society, which is an independent non-government organisation that is non-for-profit and totally funded by community.(Cancer Society) It does not only serve for the people who already had cancer , but also help those one who may expose to the risk factors of cancer to prevent cancer and manage their health from their present to their future.(Cancer Society)Show MoreRelatedBusiness Effectiveness Indicator Of New Zealand Drug Foundation1361 Words   |  6 PagesAssessment 1 BUSINESS EFFECTIVENESS INDICATOR OF NEW ZEALAND DRUG FOUNDATION AS A NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATION AND DOUGLAS MANUFACTURING LIMITED AS A PROFIT ORGANIZATION Executive Summary The content of this paper is about how to analyze the service delivery, marketing, public relations and financial system, utilized by the New Zealand Drug Foundation as a nonprofit organization and Douglas Manufacturing Limited as profit organization. Introduction The New Zealand Drug Foundation also known as (NZDF) is oneRead MoreThe Importance Of Accessibility And Equity Of Primary Health Services Essay1665 Words   |  7 Pagesdevelopment of health care system and the enhancing awareness of public health care among the society, the quality of health services is widely discussing in the global. Therefore, an international conference on primary health care is committed which is the Declaration of Alma-Ata on primary health care. It strongly reaffirms the importance of accessibility and equity of primary health services no matter in developed or developing countries (World Health Organization, United Nations Children s Fund, 1978)Read MoreAdvantages Of An Opt Out Organ Donation System1724 Words   |  7 PagesThe advantages and disadvantages of an opt-out organ donation system for 16 years and older in New Zealand. Introduction: Although anyone can donate their organs after death, New Zealand New Zealand’s organ donation rate is considerably lower compared to other courtiers in the world. According Organ Donation New Zealand (2017), there are approximately 550 people on current transplant waiting lists. In 2016 there were 61 donors resulting in approximately 200 transplant operations (ODNZ, 2017). AsRead MoreThe New Zealand Healthcare System Essay1298 Words   |  6 PagesGross Domestic Product (GDP) on health care expenses than any other nation. In 2009, the US spent 16% of its GDP on the health care industry. This represents nearly double the amount spent by other OECD nations (an average of 8.7%) and came in 40 percent higher than the next highest nation, France, which had an 11.2% of GDP outlays on health care expenditures. If we examine these costs at an individual level the US spent $7,538 per capita (per person) on health care. This was more than doubleRead MoreProfessional Nursing Pr actice Essay1468 Words   |  6 Pagespractice and discuss the dilemma of care and cure. And also determine the importance of both in professional nursing practice. Professional nursing practice has been developing for several centuries. Nursing as a profession can be traced back to the early Christian era. Since then the perception of nursing practice has changed significantly. â€Å"Nursing is caring, commitment, and dedication to meeting the functional health needs of all people† (Craven Hirnle, 2009, p. 32). First of all I want toRead MoreThe New Zealand Healthcare System Essay1211 Words   |  5 PagesThis assignment will demonstrate an understanding through an overview of the New Zealand Healthcare System including its purpose, how and why it was initially established. It will also discuss the impact that colonisation has had on MÄ ori historically and how the effects are still problematic in New Zealand’s current society, which is evident through statistical information that is available on MÄ ori Health and the socioeconomic status of the MÄ ori people. It will also illustrate the principalsRead MoreFactors Contri buting Factors That Causes Obesity Among Children Essay1369 Words   |  6 PagesChildhood obesity is a major health issue that takes place when a child is beyond the average weight for his or her age and height (Mayo Clinic, 2014). According to Sameera and Amar childhood obesity is a major public health crisis nationally and internationally, which arises because of the differences in lifestyle consequences among different cultural people in New Zealand (2012). This abnormality can cause various health risks such as diabetes and heart disease (World Health Organisation, 2014). TheRead MoreHistory Of New Zealand Public Health Sector Essay1614 Words   |  7 Pages Since 1983 the New Zealand public health sector has undergone four structural transformations. With each change there was a new set of organisations to fund and deliver health services: 1983-1993 Area Health Boards (AHBs); 1993-1997 Regional Health Authorities (RHAs) and Crown Health Enterprises (CHEs); 1998-2001 Health Funding Authority (HFA) and Hospital and Health Services (HHSs); and 2001 District Health Boards (DHBs). These changes were designed to improve health outcomes, increase accountabilityRead MoreNational Health System ( Nhs ) Essay1368 Words   |  6 PagesNational Health System (NHS) England (1800words) The National Health System began in 1948 with the aim to provide free health care for the English thus removing health access inequities. This essay considers two strengths of the NHS, being free health and locally responsive health care and two weaknesses being the financial burden and unprecedented pressure on health care resources. One of the strengths of the NHS England is residents receive free fully funded medical care that includes all medicalRead MoreA Public Health Nutritionist Dietician1435 Words   |  6 PagesIntroduction This essay describes a position for a Public Health Nutritionist Dietician working in Primary Health Care Outreach in West Arnhem Maningrida, Darwin and was advertised by the Northern Territory Government Department of Health position. The position of a Public Health Nutritionist Dietician working in rural or remote areas can be associated with many issues including working remotely and practising cultural safety. Dietician’s working in rural or remote locations are more likely to

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Euglogy for My Father - 837 Words

I would like to thank everyone for coming here today to celebrate and remember the life and legacy of my father, Samuel Goode. It is an honor to have the president, diplomats from various countries, multiple senators and congressmen—such distinguished people—in our presence. Even though Samuel Goode’s life was tragically cut short, everyone here knows that he will be remembered in our hearts for many years to come. My father was born at the turn of the twenty-first century and got to grow up with the constantly changing technology of the time. This adaptability would serve him well later on in life. Throughout his school years, he was an excellent student. By the age of fifteen he had achieved the rank of Eagle Scout in Boy Scouts of America. Heavily involved in scouts, he supported them for the remainder of his life. During his senior year in high school, he attended Eastfield College in Mesquite. The next year, he was accepted and attended the United States Naval Academy. There he majored in quantitative economics and minored in Chinese studies. In May of 2017, he received his commission as an Ensign in the United States Navy. He spent the next eight years of his life in the navy, reaching the rank of lieutenant commander. During this time he met my mother, and they dated for three years. My father liked to say my mother could not make her mind up on marriage. After three proposals and rejections, she finally said yes the fourth time he proposed to her. They

War on Drugs is a Dismal Failure Essay - 2868 Words

With a bipartisan vote of 263-146, the House recently approved a bill that included $1.7 billion to combat the drug cartels of Columbia with additional military aid. In doing so, they perpetuated what could be one of the United States most misguided policies of recent history. At least some Republicans can give themselves a pat on the back for attempting to remove the Columbian aid from the $13 billion foreign aid bill. Unfortunately, todays drug war is largely a Reagan-era Republican creation, so intoxicating that even the vast majority of liberals mindlessly defend it. Regardless, both parties now overwhelmingly champion the war on drugs, leaving its opponents a mix of unlikely allies, from Nobel Laureate and economist†¦show more content†¦Establishing the real facts about drug use is the first step in understanding the flaws inherent in the policy of prohibition. First, cocaine is not an addictive drug, and according to a 1993 National Institute on Drug Abuse report, less than one percent of cocaine users become daily users. Cocaines non-addictive status comes from the fact that users who stop using it have no withdrawal symptoms, which is one of the three criteria to define something as addictive. Like marijuana, cocaine only induces depe ndence, or a desire for use, much like chocolate. Despite its decline throughout the 80s, drug use has been rising since 1992. While, 13 million people use some illicit drug each year (5 percent of the U.S. population), over 37 percent of Americans have used drugs at one time or another, despite their illegal status. Use among twelfth graders increased between 27 percent and 40 percent between 1992 and 1997.2 15,000 people died of drug abuse in 1998, compared to roughly 400,000 from smoking and 100,000 from alcohol.3 Whats more, a significant number of drug overdoses are the result of poor quality drugs - often poisoned in the process of dealers maximizing profit by diluting and substituting ingredients. There has never been one recorded death from the use of marijuana. Best estimates place the drug trade as a $57 billion industry, roughly the equivalent of seven Microsofts. Prohibition hasShow MoreRelatedAmericas War On Drugs1528 Words   |  7 PagesAmerica’s war on drugs has failed. After millions of dollars and untold man hours spent enforcing the prohibition of illegal drugs, there is little, if any, success to show for it. Illicit drugs are still available on most American street corners, drug usage rates have not decreased, and the scourge of drug related violence continues to spread like wildfire. Sadly, the war on drugs has also resulted in the incarceration of millions of Americans for petty possession offenses and has created a blackRead MoreThe United State War On Drugs1005 Words   |  5 Pagesbeen wasting millions of dollars each year on a worthless war that cannot be won. This war is explained in detail by author Art Caden in their essay â€Å"Let’s Be Blunt† about the United State war on drugs. The war on dru gs began in 1971 under the order of President Richard Nixon, and it was one of the worst decisions he ever made. It has been nothing but a waste of government funding, time, and manpower that can only be described as a dismal failure and should be repealed or at the very least medical marijuanaRead More Legalization of Drugs Fails to Resolve Social Problems Essay1125 Words   |  5 Pageswhether the war on drugs has been a success or a failure. Border police and the FBI continue to nab ever-increasing caches of illegal drugs, while our tough on crime policies haul thousands to jail on drug trafficking and possession charges. Yet, people young and old continue to purchase and consume large amounts of drugs for a variety of reasons, ranging from medicinal to escapism. nbsp; Even the most ardent drug enforcers have to admit that the current offensive against drugs has beenRead More The Drug Abuse Resistance Education Program Essay958 Words   |  4 PagesThe Drug Abuse Resistance Education program known as D.A.R.E has become a very widespread and popular program throughout the United States. The program appeals to all ethnic, racial, and socioeconomic lines, which is a large part of the reason why the DARE program has grown exponentially. The program’s basic premise was meant to introduce kids to the danger of drugs, before the drugs got to them. The implementation of the DARE program appeared to be what America needed to begin to put a dent inRead MoreCosi Quotes857 Words   |  4 Pagesnot war, man, rock opera.† P15 â€Å"Don’t blame me, blame my mother.† P23 â€Å"Do I make you nervous? I have a problem with my social mores.† â€Å"This theatre would have burnt like a real beauty. [A beat] My motto is to try and try again.†p85 HENRY â€Å"Bit shy old Henry. Part of this project is to bring out people like Henry.† (Justin to Lewis p4) â€Å"Look, Henry, you’re a failure, as a human being and as a lawyer. Cosi offers you a chance to do something successful at least once in your dismal lifeRead More Chicago’s Cabrini-Green Housing Project Essay1554 Words   |  7 Pagesto a predominantly black, extremely poor ghetto. As it was left to rot, so to speak, Cabrini-Green harbored drug dealers, gangs and prostitution. It continued its downward spiral of despair until the mid 1990’s when the Federal Government assumed control the Chicago Housing Authority, the organization responsible for this abomination. Cabrini-Green has slowly been recovering from its dismal state of affairs recently, with developers building mixed-income and subsidized housing. The Chicago HousingRead MoreThe War Of The World War I1456 Words   |  6 Pagesstates; Unfortunately, what statesmen had not imagined was that the world had to witness to the slaughter of the First World War to achieve such dream. However, precisely because of the the devastation and chaos caused by the war, the establishment of a general association of states was crucial, and needed to be constructed as quickly as possible. In addition, as World War I pointed out a fundamental flaw in The Balance of Power System, therefore, its malfunctions could no longer be considered tolerableRead MoreDrug Legalization will Solve Many Problems Essay1557 Words   |  7 PagesDrug Legalization will Solve Many Problems The United States is by far the richest and most powerful country in the world. We citizens take for granted luxuries that people of other countries can only dream. Yet in our society there are serious social issues that for reasons unknown are not being addressed. One of the most important issues that typical politicians are afraid to address is that of what to do with the nation’s illegal drug problems. Although we hear terms like The War on DrugsRead MoreEssay about Literary Techniques in The Things They Carried1276 Words   |  6 Pagesthat he is a good paramedic devoted to doing his job well, but the MM’s represent something different- Kiley’s optimistic and kind outlook on the war and life in general. Conversely, the tranquilizers carried by Ted Lavender represent his terror of the fighting in the war and his inability to face reality, rather choosing to escape from it by taking drugs. This is an effective technique because, by using these symbols, Oâ €™Brien can let the reader figure out for him/herself deeper aspects of certainRead MoreThe Crisis Of Mexico And The United States1484 Words   |  6 Pagesin all levels of education, and reactivating economic growth by implementing a set of structural reforms. Acting aggressively will allow our youth to aspire for better-paid jobs and find alternatives to criminality. In the last decade we have seen dismal economic growth of less than 2 percent per year on average. This is the worst record for Mexico in 70 years, particularly shocking when compared to double-digit growth in other developing countries. We need to quickly move onto a path of sustained

Comparative and International Environmental Law †MyAssignmenthelp

Question: Discuss about the Comparative and International Environmental Law. Answer: Introduction: In every legally binding contracts, there must be five essential aspects to make one complete. These aspects include an offer, acceptance, capacity, consideration, and intention to carry out a contract successfully. The case presents a call for quotation for redecoration of a new office premise acquired by Melbourne Builders to Sydney Paintworks Ltd. In the quote, the firm required the work to be completed by 1st March in a letter dated 4th January wherein a terms and condition on the essence of time where the firm is a liberty to terminate a contract not undertaken within the set time. A quote is submitted by the paint workers on 6th January and a revised one on 13th January of $7000 and $7800 respectively. Each of the quote bore a term and condition on an allowance of up to 10 day working which does not amount to breach of contract agreeing on a 50 percent pay upfront and the rest on completion. An acceptation of offer of 6th January is offered by the Melbourne builders accepting terms stipulated by the paint company. A $3900 payment requested by the paint firm was sent on 5th February hence beginning the works. Fried (2015) notes that such unclear aspects lead to challenges and possible delays at the time of implementation of contracts. No formal agreement is received from the other side on acceptance of the said deliberations but the contract sets off thus leaving room for a tussle once the time of completion delays. The contract entails elements of offer and acceptance as well as the terms and conditions of each party working together. The contract entailed an offer, acceptance, written document on one side and discharge by performance. The contract involved an invitation to contract and a counter offer on the price for the work stipulated. However, in its last stage, there was no written agreement between the two where sending of request for deposit and progression of task took place. The Key Terms and Conditions of the Contract The contract involves terms and conditions on the side of the team seeking for service and the team offering the said service. One side states that time is of essence and any task not completed within the specified time gives the firm offering the work the right to terminate a contract. On the other side, the Paint Works firm has a terms and condition stating While every effort will be made to carry out work within agreed timescales, a delay in completion of up to 10 working days is not to be regarded as a breach of contract. Thus, the terms for the Sydney Paintworks allow for 10 more days to carry out a task on top of the stipulated one in a contract which has to be accepted by the person in need of service. On the other hand, Melbourne Builders consider time as of essence where a contract has to be carried out in time. However, it accepts the offer placed by the firm thus justifying acceptance on the 10 more days as written behind the quotation card. The main contestation in the case arises in the difference on the two which were not solved before the actual implementation of the task began. Therefore, each had to work with the terms stipulated but the practicality could only be affirmed with either party in the case they accepted an offer in written. The point in the case arises where the Sydney Paintworks employees delayed the task completion due to illness thus leading to the incomplete nature of the paint job by 2nd of March. As a result, Melbourne Builders according to its terms and condition on the essence of time decided on termination of the contract and seek for compensation on the breach of contract. The cause of the delay seems natural and one that does not totally amount to the mistake of the paint firm. In the long run, it delayed the actual completion of the task estimated to have been complete by the 1st of March according to the agreement placed by Melbourne Builders. As a result, the firm sought to terminate the contract on the grounds that the team implementing the task failed to deliver according to its required timings as stipulated in its terms and conditions while seeking for a quote. Likely Outcome of the Case The case entails a cross-examination of the terms and conditions and whether the deliberations therein were enforced into law by the elements of the contract. In this, it shall look at the offer and acceptance and whether terms and conditions were made clear to each party as well as the actual signing of the contract as a legal binding (Bayern 2015). In the case, Sydney Paintworks are likely to win and the other party lose on the case. An offer in a contract comes with terms and conditions where each member has to sign and agree before the implementation of a contract. On one side, the Melbourne Builders accepted the offer placed by Sydney Paintwork and specified on the acceptance of the first quote placed on 6th. Therein was a term and condition on the back of the quote which clearly specified that While every effort will be made to carry out work within agreed timescales, a delay in completion of up to 10 working days is not to be regarded as a breach of contract. According to the contract which was perceived to be completed in a weeks time from the expected day of completion, the ten days specified had not elapsed thus placing the paint firm on the right side of the law. Since Melbourne Builders read and understood the quote form, it is expected that their acceptance to the offer agrees that an extension of ten days would be comfortable for them (OLeary 2017). However, there was no formal communication on acceptance of the terms of condition offered by Melbourne Builders to Sydney Paintworks. At no point in the case are we told of an acceptance on the offer placed thus does not hold the other party liable to the terms and conditions expressed. According to Knapp, Crystal and Prince (2016), such issues lead to lack of clarity in contracts which might escalate to legal contestations. The lack of written communication on the side of the paint works team indicates no legal binding agreement on the terms and condition stipulated by Melbourne Builders. However, the acceptation to offer a part payment amounting to more than half of the amount expected on the 6th Jan offer stipulates agreement to the terms and conditions of offering half of the pay but which coincides with the later offer of $7800 (Tan 2015). In the case, breach of contract can only materialize if the Sydney Paintworks made an agreement or acceptance to the counter offer placed by the Melbourne Builders. In the case, we are only informed of Melbourne sending an acceptance to the 6th Jan offer where further communication between the two entities led to an agreement on the stat date of the work and no further agreement on the terms and conditions set. According to O'Sullivan and Hilliard (2016), such a contract can be breached as there is no legal binding holding each party in written. Melbourne would have a win on their side if it countered the terms and condition of the quotation placed by the paint firm and asked for a review or automatic disqualification of the firm (McKendrick 2014). The fact that it accepted and sent back an acceptance puts them on the losing side as their offer was not accepted in written but rather had a conversation leading to the beginning of task. In another scenario, while seeking compensation for the final work, Sydney Paintworks would be defeated in seeking to enforce full payment for the total of $7800 sent in the second quote. A contract cannot be said to be complete if the terms and conditions were unclear where in the case each party is expected to seek for clarity on issues deemed contestable (Osterland and Rose 2017). While the firm received half of the sum requested in their second quote, the written notice in acceptance of the offer clearly stipulated acceptance of the 6th Jan offer which amounted to $7000. If an agreement is not reached in such a case, a decline to an offer is expected, a fact that failed to occur in the given case. According to Bodansky (2016), not every provision of a legal instrument necessarily leads to a legal obligation. Each party went on to carry their part of the assignment where one paid for the task and the other began to implement the deliberations. Thus, it is evident that Melbourne Builders will lose the case to Sydney Paintworks on the grounds of lack of a legally binding agreement signed after acceptance and offer stage of a contract (Wilkinson-Ryan and Hoffman 2015). A partial agreement and documentation shall act as a factor of lose for one of the party. Reference Bayern, S., 2015. Offer and Acceptance in Modern Contract Law: A Needles Concept. Cal. L. Rev., 103, p.67. Bodansky, D., 2016. The legal character of the Paris Agreement. Review of European, Comparative International Environmental Law, 25(2), pp.142-150. Fried, C., 2015. Contract as promise: A theory of contractual obligation. Oxford University Press, USA. Knapp, C.L., Crystal, N.M. and Prince, H.G., 2016. Problems in Contract Law: cases and materials. Wolters Kluwer Law Business. McKendrick, E., 2014. Contract law: text, cases, and materials. Oxford University Press (UK). OLeary, L., 2017. Introduction. In Employment and Labour Relations Law in the Premier League, NBA and International Rugby Union (pp. 1-18). TMC Asser Press, The Hague. Osterland, T. and Rose, T., 2017. Correctness of Smart Contracts for Consistency Enforcement. ERCIM NEWS, (110), pp.18-19. O'Sullivan, J. and Hilliard, J., 2016. The law of contract. Oxford University Press. Tan, V., 2015. Unfair Contract Terms. Australian Commercial Law, p.380. Wilkinson-Ryan, T. and Hoffman, D.A., 2015. The common sense of contract formation. Stan. L. Rev., 67, p.1269.

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Mechanical Engineering free essay sample

Plain carbon steel is essentially an alloy of iron and carbon which also contains manganese and a variety of residual elements. These residual elements were either present within the raw materials used in the production process e. g. iron ore and scrap steel additions, or they were added in the production process for a specific purpose, e. g. deoxidization by means of silicon or aluminium. Hence they are called residual elements to distinguish them from alloying elements that are deliberately added according to specified minimum amounts. The term â€Å"cleanliness† refers to the amounts of various phases such as oxides, sulphides and silicates that can be present in steel. The smaller the amount of these phases, the cleaner the steel. For many years steels have been produced by casting the molten steel into moulds and allowing it to solidify into ingots which were then processed by rolling etc. steel produced by ingots is subdivided into four categories according to the deoxidization process used. We will write a custom essay sample on Mechanical Engineering or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page These categories are rimmed, capped, semi-killed and killed steel. When un-deoxidized steel is cast into an ingot, carbon monoxide is evolved during solidification because the solubility of oxygen decreases as the temperature decreases. 1b) Steels that contain specified amounts of alloying elements, other than carbon and the commonly accepted amounts of manganese, copper, silicon, sulphur and phosphorus are known as alloy steels. Alloying elements are added to change mechanical or physical properties. Alloy steels are melted together in an electric furnace. This step usually involves 8 to 12 hours of intense heat. Next, the mixture is cast into one of several shapes including blooms, billets and slabs. After various forming steps, the steel is heat treated and then cleaned and polished to give it the desired finish. The semi-finished steel goes through forming operations, beginning with hot rolling, in which the steel is heated and passed through huge rolls. After the steel is formed, most types must go through an annealing step. Annealing is a heat treatment in which the steel is heated and cooled under controlled conditions to relieve internal stresses and soften the metal. Some steels are heat treated for higher strength. However, heat treatment requires careful control, for even small changes from the recommended temperature, time, or cooling rate can seriously affect the properties. 1c) Plain carbon steel is used in many industries such as in the construction of roads, railways, infrastructures, appliances, and buildings. Carbon steel is used to erect a strong and lasting frame to most modern buildings, steel beams (girders), joists and studs are engineered to create the skeleton of a building. Steel is also used in a variety of construction materials, such as pipes, tubing, plates, bolts, nails, screws and equipment like tools, bulldozers, cranes etc. 1d) In the construction industry, gears, pipes, beams, w shape beams , boilers, pressure valves and other things are fabricated from alloy steels. By coupling additional elements to the carbon and iron based building metal you can strengthen it to withstand quite a bit more. Alloy steels can be non-magnetic, high-quality, and corrosion-proof. Furthermore they can be used in highly demanding applications such as commercial steel buildings, turbine blades in jet engines, spacecrafts and nuclear reactors. Stainless steel is the most widely known alloy steel. What distinguishes stainless steel from carbon steels is that it contains a minimum of 10% chromium. As a consequence, stainless steel building metal is resistant to staining, and is rust proof, which makes it perfect for cooking utensils, cutlery, jewelry as well as aircraft parts, architectural components, and surgical implements. 2) In the production of aluminium, first the ore is mixed with a hot concentrated solution of sodium hydroxide. The NaOH will dissolve the oxides of aluminium and silicon but not other impurities such as iron oxides, which remains insoluble. The insoluble materials are removed by filtration. The solution which now contains the oxides of aluminium and silicon are next treated by bubbling carbon dioxide gas through the solution. Carbon dioxide forms a weak acid solution of carbonic acid which neutralizes the sodium hydroxide from the first treatment. This neutralization selectively precipitates the aluminium oxide, but leaves the silicates in solution. Again filtration is used for the separation. After this stage the purified aluminium oxide is heated to evaporate the water. The molten mixture is then electrolysed with a very large current and the aluminium ions are reduced to form aluminium metal The physical properties of aluminium make it a perfect material for construction. Its light weight means that the load on the bearing structure is less, and its strength makes it suitable for a great variety of solutions. Its resistance to corrosion gives it special advantages: aluminium is perfect for regions with severe weather conditions. Finally, its fluidity gives freedom to architects and designers. Aluminium extruded, rolled and cast products are commonly used for window frames and other glazed structures ranging from shop fronts to large roof superstructures for shopping centres and stadiums, for roofing, siding and curtain walling as well as for cast door handles, catches for windows, staircases, heating and air-conditioning systems, power lines and the list goes on. 3) Plastics are produced using a process called polymerization, where many thousands of monomers are joined together to form a polymer chain. Monomers are made of atoms like chlorine, nitrogen, oxygen, hydrogen and sulphur. Monomers are easily extracted from abundant organic. There are two main types of plastics, thermosetting plastics and thermoplastics. Both are produced by pouring liquid monomers into a mould where they undergo polymerization. Thermosetting plastics are permanent once moulded, they do not deform under heat. Thermoplastics will melt under heat can be reformed repeatedly. The polymerization process increases the molecular weight of the constituent molecules, turning liquid monomers into solid polymers. (Increase of molecular weight causes the substance to undergo a phase change). During the moulding process, the monomer soup is superheated and condensed under many atmospheres worth of pressure. This causes polymerization to occur and ensures that the plastic is solid and uniform, lacking any internal air bubbles. Specialist plastic and rubber fabrications are used in a wide variety of industries including, civil engineering, medical, aerospace, military, atomic energy, marine and automotive. Many products are used to contain aggressive chemicals which could be hazardous if not properly controlled. Furthermore the uses and advantages of plastics and rubbers are endless throughout the industries, some examples of these are, sealing, jointing and finishing products, containing applications, bio-degradable applications, hoses, wheels, profiles and consumables. 4a) Welding is a fabrication process that joins materials, usually metals or thermoplastics by causing coalescence. This is often done by heating the work pieces and adding a material to form a pool of molten material that cools to become a strong joint, but sometimes pressure is used in conjunction with heat or by itself to produce the weld. This is in contrast with soldering and brazing, which involves melting a lower-melting point material between the work pieces to form a bond between them. Many different energy sources can be used for welding, including a gas flame (oxy-acetylene), an electric arc, a laser, an electron beam, friction and ultrasound. While often an industrial process, welding can be done in man different environments including open air and under water. Welding is generally the simplest, fastest, and most cost-effective method, at least in the case of structural metals. Welding doesnt require parts to fit exactly. Methods like bolts or screws require some type of flange or overlap of parts, so with welding, weight and material savings can be realized. A high quality weld can often be stronger than the parts to be joined, though this should not be depended on. 4b) Welding, without the proper precautions, can be a dangerous and unhealthy practice. However, with the use of new technology and proper protection, the risks of injury and death associated with welding can be greatly reduced. Because many common welding procedures involve an open electric arc or flame, the risk of burns is significant. To prevent them, welders wear protective clothing in the form of heavy leather gloves and protective long sleeve jackets to avoid exposure to extreme heat and flames. Additionally, the brightness of the weld area leads to a condition called arc eye in which ultraviolet light causes the inflammation of the cornea and can burn the retinas of the eyes. Goggles and helmets with dark face plates are worn to prevent this exposure, and in recent years, new helmet models have been produced that feature a face plate that self-darkens upon exposure to high amounts of UV light. To protect bystanders, transparent welding curtains often surround the welding area. These curtains, made of a polyvinyl chloride plastic film, shield nearby workers from exposure to the UV light from the electric arc, but should not be used to replace the filter glass used in helmets. Welders are also often exposed to dangerous gases and particulate matter. Processes like flux-cored arc welding and shielded metal arc welding produce smoke containing particles of various types of oxides. The size of the particles in question tends to influence the toxicity of the fumes, with smaller particles presenting a greater danger. Additionally, many processes produce various gases, most commonly carbon dioxide and ozone, and fumes that can prove dangerous if ventilation is inadequate. Furthermore, because the use of compressed gases and flames in many welding processes pose an explosion and fire risk, some common precautions include limiting the amount of oxygen in the air and keeping combustible materials away from the workplace. 4d) Pipe Cutters A tubing or pipe cutter is a hand tool specifically designed to cut pipe. It works by clamping onto a portion of the pipe and cutting through it using a small, round blade. As the tool is rotated it tightens, causing the blade to slowly dig into the pipe, eventually sawing all the way through. Tubing and pipe cutters are easy to use and provide a straight cut and edge to weld. Pipe Clamps For clamping pipelines on the outside whilst welding is taking place on straight sections, pipeline flanges or bends. Various types of external pipe clamps are suited to different applications. Chain clamps are extremely versatile for holding pipes up to 54 suitable for elbows, tees, flanges, end caps and most other pipe fittings. Ratchet Line-up cage clamps are very strong and accurate, but are also lightweight with either standard flat cross bars or no tack arched cross bars. External Hydraulic (no tack) Line-up cage clamps lines up pipe for welding to enable the maximum weld to be made without moving the clamp and comes with hand toggle or powerful hydraulic for accurate alignment. JA Type Mechanical Pipe Clamps allow efficient preparation of welding, whilst allowing easy handling but at the same time optimized working security, ensuring safety and peace of mind. 5a) Stress is the internal resistance, or counterforce, of a material to the distorting effects of an external force or load. Mechanical Engineering free essay sample Mechanical engineering, or MEs, jobs are exciting, challenging, and rewarding, but also due to there being a high demand for licensed engineers, this being a stable career with a bright future, and income being above average, this has been a popular career choice for a long time. In fact, mechanical engineering is one of the oldest engineering disciplines in existence, as well as one of the most respected. Mechanical Engineers, or MEs, take an idea of a product and introduce it into the marketplace with great knowledge of the materials and research (Career opportunities, 2012). Mechanical engineering is a field that takes a certain kind of person that has special skills in math, physics, and design. It is best for a student to start taking classes while still in high school. When a person starts college as a freshman there are certain prerequisites that must be taken during their high school years, such as studying algebra for two years, and one year each of chemistry, physics, and trigonometry. We will write a custom essay sample on Mechanical Engineering or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Starting these studies early on would be beneficial for the time it will take a person to earn a degree in college (Key elements, 2012). Other criteria’s should be met for the mechanical engineering program, such as the ACT scores. ACT scores should be, at a minimum of 26 in math. It is also, important to find a school that will prepare a person to earn the degree employers are looking for. At minimum, employers will be looking for in a successful student, is a Bachelor’s degree. Students can secure a job with only a two-year Associates’ degree, but finding employment could be a challenge. The only advantage to this degree would be to work under someone and get the hands on experience from it (Key elements, 2012). A more dvanced degree would be a Master’s degree, and a Doctoral Degree (PhD) in Mechanical Engineering. Out of these two degrees, a student would have higher demand in career opportunities, and a higher pay salary (Key elements, 2012). Mechanical engineering comes with many job descriptions, and the title has been around for a long time. Out of all engineering careers, mechanical offers the most opportunity (Overview, 2012). When interviewing Jim Smith, who is a Mechanical project engineer, he said, he has been in the engineering field for six years and has moved up to a design team leader. Mechanical engineering has an array of areas to concentrate on, transportation, working with the environment, computers, biomedical, fuels, and nuclear power are just a few to choose from. Being an engineer will require working one on one, or working in a team environment; Depending on the size of the company. Some areas focus on research and laboratory work. In a minimal situation, a mechanical engineer description could be just using math skills to design a product (Overview, 2012). â€Å"In 2002, mechanical engineers had around 215,000 jobs. The employment of mechanical engineers is expected to be on the rise through 2012. With all the new machinery, mechanical engineers will have further jobs available to them (Mechanical engineering careers, 2012). The earnings according to the† National Association of Colleges and Employers,† in 2003, the top earned with a PhD, was 69,904, with the lowest earnings being 48,585 a year (Employment outlook, 2012). Smith said the start ing salary at his firm, with a BS in mechanical engineering is around 55k, a year. Mechanical Engineering offers a range of advantages, such as job security, excellent benefits, advancement opportunities, and salary, but with all the advantages there are some disadvantages to the career. Long working hours, meeting high expectations in the classroom, meeting job requirements, in a time where the economy is very competitive, undergoing long training hours for at least two years , and working on projects in a team setting, where they can be more time consuming(M. E. Disadvantages, 2012). There may be some travel involved for meetings, and conferences to stay current on new things ithin the field (Employment outlook, 2012). Smith said when he advanced in his job he took on more responsibilities, but he simply accepts that work is work and eventually he will get rewarded for it as long as he does a good job. I chose Mechanical Engineering, as my topic, because the discipline of mechanical engineering is all about pushing the boundaries of technology. Creating things, d evelop things, plan structures and look into detail the advantages and disadvantages of these tools in society. Mechanical engineering, as noted earlier, is an interdisciplinary program. A person will need to a have solid background on a variety of subjects and ideas so that they can have a holistic approach when taking on a project. Another reason I chose to do my paper on this career is the fact that my son is going into this professional, and I could have a better understanding of exactly what a Mechanical engineer is. With all the research I have done, I believe this career is a perfect fit for him. Reference Andrews,N. (N. D). Mechanical engineer disadvantages. Retrieved from http://www. ehow. com/info_10004398 Careers. (ND). Mechanical engineering careers, jobs, and employment career information.